unhosted web apps

freedom from web 2.0's monopoly platforms

29. Offline-first web app design

Last week we already talked about asynchronous synchronization, the tactic of synchronizing the client-side data set with the server-side data set independently from the timing of data-changing actions that happen on the client-side. This is a typical "offline-first" strategy: it makes sure the client-side app keeps working in the same way, regardless of whether the network connection is good, slow, or absent.

Offline-first web app design is basically the method of giving the client-side application its own stand-alone event cycle, independent from any server-side processing.

Of course, if an application's functionality requires something to happen on a remote server, this can only work when the device is online. But the way the user interacts with the application need not be interrupted if a remote action is queued for sending later, instead of being executed immediately.

An offline-first application doesn't treat network failure as an exception or error state. Queueing up remote actions until they can be completed is part of the normal flow of the application's event logic. If the application is online, this queue will simply empty immediately, but the fact that this queue exists means that temporary network failures do not change the code path that is taken.

Anonymous Mode

If the user doesn't connect a remote storage or other per-user backend to an unhosted web app, the user's data has nowhere to go. It has to stay inside the browser tab. The user's identity is also undefined in this case - the user is not authenticated against any username or domain name, it's simply the user that happens to be physically handling the device. We call this situation "anonymous mode".

A lot of hosted web apps also use this sort of anonymous mode, allowing you to start using the application already before logging in or registering. For instance, a hotel booking website might allow you to search and browse hotels and offers, and maybe even reserve a room already for a short time, postponing the authentication step to the last moment, where you authorize the creditcard payment. This way, the barrier to browse the website's offers is as low as possible.

For apps where anonymous mode doesn't make sense (for instance, gHost, which centers on publishing webcam pictures to your connected remote storage), the first view of the app (the splash screen, if you will), will not allow the user to interact anonymously; the application's functionality stays hidden until you connect a remote storage account. Other apps, like LiteWrite, do include an anonymous mode, where you can use the app in the same way (writing and editing text documents, in this case), but simply without the sync.

Connection States

As part of remotestorage.js, we created a uniform "widget", which all apps can include in the same way, at the top right of the page. It allows the user to switch from anonymous mode to connected mode by putting in their user address, and going through the OAuth dance.

Whenever a remote storage is connected, the widget also shows the sync state, flashing when sync is busy, grey when there is no connectivity, and showing an error message when an unrecoverable error has occurred.

When the access token has expired, or has been revoked, the widget will prompt the user to reconnect. The widget also allows the user to manually trigger a full sync cycle with one button, and to disconnect with another one.

When the user goes from anonymous mode to connected mode, data that exists locally is preserved. But when the user goes back from connected to anonymous, all data that exists locally is deleted. This ensures that no data stays behind on the device when a user stops using an app.


This sort of logic is often a bit different in offline-first apps than in online-first apps, and the JavaScript developer community is collectively learning how to do this, through talks at user groups, blog posts, and discussions.

The important thing here is probably to realize that offline-first design is an important "mind switch" you will have to make when starting to develop unhosted web apps, or even just mobile web apps in general. Next week we'll talk about Backend-as-a-Service, stay tuned!

Next: Backend-as-a-Service platforms